Jk horticultural spray schedule

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Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests. As an example, the fungus Alternaria solani is used to combat the aquatic weed Salvinia. In general, a pesticide is a chemical such as carbamate or biological agent such as a virus , bacterium , or fungus that deters, incapacitates, kills, or otherwise discourages pests. Target pests can include insects, plant pathogens , weeds, molluscs , birds , mammals , fish , nematodes roundworms , and microbes that destroy property, cause nuisance, or spread disease, or are disease vectors. Along with these benefits, pesticides also have drawbacks, such as potential toxicity to humans and other species. Pesticides can be classified by target organism e.

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  • Kashmir | Plant Protection Schedule 2020
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  • Div Com unveils horticulture calendar 2020
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The authors do not have any potential conflict of interest in this work. Mentioning of a product in this article does not mean an endorsement by the authors. This is purely an information for the reader and that anyone who intends to use any product mentioned in this article should seek further information.

Clement Akotsen-Mensah, Isaac N. Ativor, Roger S. Mango farmers in Ghana are confronted with many pest problems like fruit flies, Sternochetus mangiferae F. Different pest management options are available to mango farmers; however, the extent to which they apply the available pest management options is not well known. A survey was conducted among 60 farmers in southeastern Ghana, from October—December mango season, to find out the level of knowledge and practice of insect pest management used by mango farmers.

The results showed that most farmers use conventional insecticides to control insect pests in mango. Pheromone traps are, however, used for fruit flies but not for S. The results are discussed based on the importance of adoption of IPM strategies in mango production and the possible reduction of fruit rejection during mango export in Ghana.

Mango, Mangifera indica L. It is grown in the tropical and subtropical climates, making it second to citrus in terms of production. However, mangoes exported to some European countries were intercepted, confiscated, and destroyed because of the presence of insects considered as quarantine pests, thus leading to huge economic losses to the exporters and the whole horticultural sector of most of the exporting countries including Ghana ACP-EU, NewsletterIn light of the numerous fruit interceptions to the major markets, especially the European Union, there have been several attempts to understand whether the levels of interception are due to the presence of insect pests or their damage.

Like most perennial fruit crops, mango production in Ghana and other countries is plagued with many insect pests. The most common ones are fruit flies Ceratitis spp. In many situations, efforts of pest management are concentrated on these two insects in Ghana. The S. Their presence in mango fruit also requires that stringent management practices be applied, which eventually increases cost of production.

The success of fruit flies and S. Several insect pest control options are available to mango farmers in Ghana. Currently, methyl eugenol, a parapheromone mixed with recommended insecticides, is recommended for mango farmers to use for the control of fruit flies Abdulahi et al.

However, there are no such pheromones and attractants available for other equally important pests of mango and thus farmers resort to the use of conventional insecticides to control these insects. In most cases, the use of insecticides such as pyrethroids and organophosphates are for the control of fruit flies Abdulahi et al.

Although farmers use insecticides as major control option, the problem of pest interception is still relatively high in mangoes meant especially for European markets. The ultimate goal of the work is to identify the weak links in the farmers practice and suggest ways to enhance general pest management practice for mango farmers in Ghana. The other major crops grown in the study locations, apart from mango, are maize, rice, and vegetables.

Twenty 20 mango farmers from each district were interviewed in a survey from October to DecemberA semistructured questionnaire was administered to the respondents and they were allowed to give their opinions freely and uninterrupted in areas where they depart from the questionnaire. Where necessary, respondents were probed to give further information on some aspects of the questions which were not addressed by the questionnaire.

The purpose of the study was explained to the respondents and their consent sought. Translation of the questionnaires to the common local languages Twi and Ga Adangme spoken in the area was done to assist farmers who could not speak and understand the English language.

In such cases, a farmer who could speak the local language was solicited as an interpreter. This improved the hospitality and cooperation of the respondents. No more than five respondents were interviewed a day because of time constraint. Information on farm characteristics and the general challenges in mango production were asked.

Farmers were asked to mention management tactics used against insect pests and diseases. If pesticides were mentioned, farmers were asked to name the pesticides or show the containers to the interviewer.

The source of the pesticides, how they were used, and the motivation for the use of pesticides were asked. Data from the questionnaire were encoded, entered in Microsoft Excel spread sheet, and checked for any data inconsistencies prior to analysis. The data were tabulated and analyzed using frequency and percentages. Some farmers gave multiple responses to some of the questions, so percentages did not add up toThe average size of mango orchards at all the three localities was 6.

The common varieties of mangoes grown in the studied area include Keitt , Kent , Palmer , and Haden. The results showed thatAdditionally,About 3. Twelve 12 different types of insecticides were found to be used by mango farmers in the study area. Also, 3. The results also showed that farmers combine different insecticides for pest management. Combinations of Cydim super, Plan D, and Deltafos 3.

Percentage of mango farmers using single and combinations of insecticide products in southeastern Ghana. Farmers who used different products do not tank mix but alternate the products. Table 1 shows the classification of some of the insecticides used by farmers. In recent times, pyrethroids, neonicotinoids, and organophosphates OPs were the classes of insecticides mostly used in the management of insect pests, and the insecticides fall under WHO Hazard Category II moderately hazardous in WHO characterization.

The pyrethroids identified in the study to be in use were deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and bifenthrin WHOWHO classification of insecticides used by mango farmers in southeastern Ghana.

The data showed that majority of the respondentsAnd finally, 3. I utilize cultural practices to manage pest populations. I serve as a mentor to others interested in moving toward a whole systems approach; and Level 5 : I have adopted a whole systems approach, such as Integrated Crop Management [ICM] that integrates pest, soil, water, and crop management practices; incorporates conservation planning; and focuses on sustainable agriculture.

Level 0 of the pest management transition relied almost entirely on preventive methods of insect pest management including weed and disease management as well as insects applications with little effort to monitor pest populations through scouting or forecasting. Also, mango growers do not have a strong desire to change the current management practices Fig. The level of IPM practice varied among the farmers in the studied area.

The most common lures used by the farmers were methyl eugenol ME - and terpinyl acetate TA -baited traps for the management of Bactrocera species and Ceratitis species, respectively. AboutThe use of natural products and insect growth regulators was very low 6. Also, on-farm weather monitoring by the farmers was lowThe farmers in the studied area never practiced biological control and microbial pesticide methods of pest management in their mango orchards.

Its scope currently covers fresh fruit and vegetables, propagation material, integrated farm assurance livestock, dairy, pigs, poultry, combinable crops and grains , flowers and ornamentals, tea, coffee, and aquaculture www. WhileFrequency of insecticide applications made by farmers in a year in the study area. Data from the study showed varied levels of IPM knowledge and practices among mango farmers in southeastern Ghana.

The research was built around six levels of IPM practice of mango growers in southern Ghana. In the current studies, 12 different trade names of insecticides belonging to five different chemical groups were found to be commonly used by mango farmers. Among the groups, OPs were the most extensively used insecticides. The present survey confirmed an earlier study which found organophosphate as the most commonly used insecticide by mango farmers in India Srivastava et al.

The results that most farmers use insecticides to control pests are in agreement with reports of the growing dependence on synthetic insecticides for the control of crop pests Orr and Ritchie , Obopile et al. For example, Orr and Ritchie reported up to 19 applications on tomato and 14 applications on cabbage per year in the wetlands of Southern Malawi.

Most of the pesticides applied are potent toxins and their intensive use poses potential hazards to humans, livestock, and the environment Chambers et al.

This confirmed earlier literature from India where farmers are advised to use calendar and spot spray program for control of mango pests AnonymousThe high usage of organophosphates in mango pest management might be due to its low persistence and high bio-efficiency Sharma et al. The intensive use of nonselective insecticides to deal with pest outbreaks may have direct consequences for pest control through the occurrence of insecticide resistant strains, pest resurgence, and secondary pest outbreaks McKinney and Schoch , Tiwari et al.

This high level of farmers responding in the affirmative to this question corroborate earlier findings by Nagenthirarajah and Thiruchelvam , which revealed that most farmers depend on chemical pesticides for the management of insect pests and diseases and that farmers use moderately toxic pesticides but at a very high frequency and dosage.

Additionally, very few of the respondents 3. This shows that these farmers had no experience and knowledge for instance about biological and nonchemical methods to control pests especially weevils, for sustainable mango production. It is also in agreement with earlier work by Karamidehkordi and Hashemi , Singh et al. Heh also concluded in his research on knowledge levels of farmers and use of integrated pest management practices in Hohoe municipality of Ghana that training in IPM has significant influence on its use by farmers for sustainable pest management.

The farmers in the studied area adopted different IPM methods and had knowledge on insecticide use. This shows that insecticides were used to manage other insects including the S. Nyirenda et al. It is on this basis that Dent argued that increasing farmer participation in the development and implementation of IPM programs has emerged as a strategy for increasing the application of IPM, particularly among small-scale farmers.

The sustainable and profitable production of mangoes in Ghana depends on the ability of farmers to meet stringent consumer demands of unblemished quality fruit with no pesticide residues or quarantine pests. Even the local consumers are increasingly aware of the health and environmental risks associated with using pesticides in food crop production Diedhiou et al. In conclusion, this study revealed that there were varied levels of knowledge and pest management practice among mango farmers especially against the S.

Mango IPM practice could generate substantial economic benefits when adopted successfully because it can help reduce the magnitude of fruit rejection, cost of insecticides, and net income from mango production.

It is also evident that most of the farmers adopted GLOBALGAP standards for certification which provides a sustained production process, thereby generating enormous economic benefits to the farmers in the studied regions. Majority of the respondents

Farmers apprised of apple scab disease

Some orchards have a smaller crop of tart cherries. Here are recommendations for low cost spray programs for cherry leaf spot. Some growers have been inquiring about reducing input costs for tart cherries, and this article is intended to be used as a guide to help with season-long decision-making. First, thank you so much to our local representatives for providing this information. Secondly, please note that the chemical costs and average costs will likely differ, and costs will vary depending on size of purchase and other factors. Once detected, we will correct errors as soon as possible.

For the control of powdery mildew disease of rose, spraying the plants with Effective spray schedule for the management of tea mosquito bug (TMB) and.

When should dormant oil sprays be applied to apple trees?

The authors do not have any potential conflict of interest in this work. Mentioning of a product in this article does not mean an endorsement by the authors. This is purely an information for the reader and that anyone who intends to use any product mentioned in this article should seek further information. Clement Akotsen-Mensah, Isaac N. Ativor, Roger S. Mango farmers in Ghana are confronted with many pest problems like fruit flies, Sternochetus mangiferae F. Different pest management options are available to mango farmers; however, the extent to which they apply the available pest management options is not well known. A survey was conducted among 60 farmers in southeastern Ghana, from October—December mango season, to find out the level of knowledge and practice of insect pest management used by mango farmers. The results showed that most farmers use conventional insecticides to control insect pests in mango.

Kashmir | Plant Protection Schedule 2020

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Several orchardists from across Kashmir told Ziraat Times that they feel dejected that time and again they receive such information from Horticulture and Agriculture Departments only after they use these pesticides in their orchards. Reputed companies, with good quality control mechanisms, on the other hand, maintain that substandard and diluted chemicals in Kashmir come from obscure firms, who use big names only to create confusion among the buyers.

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It can be used for early season control of pests that overwinter on trees and shrubs, or it can be used during the growing season for variety of pest problems. It kills insects by smothering and is effective on insects in all stages of growth including the egg stage, clinging to the bark of trees and shrubs. Oil can be used for managing the overwintering populations of aphids, SAN JOSE scales, webworms, leafhoppers, tent caterpillars, mealy bugs, European red mites, etc. University of agriculture of Kashmir, Srinagar. This MSDS sheet is not available to download, you can contact us on email lubescare hpcl.

Div Com unveils horticulture calendar 2020

In his address, DDC urged the farming community to adopt scientific techniques to enhance the production and productivity. He enjoined upon the farmers to approach Horticulture department for latest trends, techniques and schemes. He advised farmers that focus should be given to organic farming and adoption of sustainable farm practices. He also added that the base of farm activities should be widened so that livelihood measures get augmented. Terming land conversion an alarming trend DDC said that his administration is adopting a zero tolerance policy against the violators.

We are the largest Agricultural Sprayer Specialist in Europe. These low-profile sprayers are designed to slide into the box of a UTV and are often used for.

Ohio pesticide license test results. No other testing result shall be considered an official regulatory testing result. Ornamental tree applicators need to test for the ornamental and turf pest control category.

RELATED VIDEO: Horticulture Department Bandipora organised Farmers traning at Horticulture Nursery

Photo for representation only. The webinar saw the participation of scientists of the plant pathology department of the university and regional research stations, Krishi Vigyan Kendras KVKs and colleges. Dr Pankaj Gupta, Associate Director, dwelt upon the timeline of the spread of the disease throughout the world and its myths. He also explained how favourable weather conditions and temperature triggered its outbreak. Scientists illustrated how farmers controlled its spread by following the recommended spray schedule.

Kashmir Almond known for their superiority of taste. Kashmir walnut are popular within the country as well as in foreign market.

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The meeting, which was convened here on Saturday to discuss the availability of tree spray oils for the upcoming horticulture season, was attended by senior officers of Agriculture and horticulture departments besides representatives of various oil companies including Indian Oil Corporation Limited, Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited and Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited. Stressing on the officials to intervene in making available only quality substances in the market for the use by fruit growers, Lone said a committee of experts would be constituted soon to look into the issues of certification and compliance of rules by the manufacturers of these oils. He also asked for channelling all the chemicals entering the market through any public sector undertaking for its proper monitoring and better management. He asked for establishing laboratories at district level for quick and effective monitoring of fertilizers and pesticides.

Watch the video: Spray schedule 2020 For kashmir. DIRECTORATE OF horticulture kashmir.


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